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2017年10月21日 16:12:09|来源:国际在线|编辑:百姓频道
In and around Hanoi stand thousands of years of history. The spiral-shaped Co Loa citadel complex is thought to date to around 200 B.C. A delicate pagoda perched atop a white column in the heart of the city is from the 11th century. But no era may have shaped Hanoi more than the years of French colonial occupation, 1883 to 1954. 河内及其周边地区拥有数千年的历史。螺旋形的古螺城(Co Loa)据说可以追溯到公元前200年;高耸于市中心白柱台之上的精致佛塔始建于11世纪。然而在河内的发展过程中,可能没有哪个时代能超过1883到1954年法国殖民时期对它的影响。The Vietnamese capital was refashioned into a French-style metropolis, with broad avenues lined with trees, European-inflected buildings and Paris-style cafes. Despite the oppression that took place during the colonial years, and the devastating war and dramatic political changes that followed, it#39;s a time -- or at least a feel -- that#39;s often romanticized. And the French legacy is still evident in almost every aspect of Hanoi, from architecture to art to food. Aaron Joel Santos for The Wall Street Journal图片:探访河内的古与今这座越南的首都被重新塑造成法兰西风格的都市,宽阔的街道绿树成荫,处处是欧式风格的建筑和巴黎风情的咖啡馆。尽管经历了殖民时期的压迫以及那之后毁灭性的战争和政治上的剧变,那依然是一段常常被赋予浪漫色的时期——至少感觉上是这样。法国的遗存在河内的几乎每一个方面都依然十分明显,从建筑到艺术再到美食,无处不在。But this city isn#39;t stuck in the past -- in recent years, steel and glass buildings have claimed their place in Hanoi#39;s skyline; clothing designers with an eye to Paris and Milan have been showing their collections at Vietnam Fashion Week; and new galleries and artist studios have blossomed. 然而这座城市并没有停留在过去——近年来,玻璃钢架建筑已经矗立在河内的天际线上;着眼巴黎和米兰的装设计师在越南时装周(Vietnam Fashion Week)上展示着他们的作品;新落成的画廊和艺术家工作室遍地开花。Just as destinations have different sides, so do travelers. This pair of itineraries lets you spend a visit delving into Hanoi#39;s colonial past or exploring its buzzy, fluid present. Or, blend the two lists for a best-of bespoke guide. 正如旅游目的地有多面性一样,旅游者们的需求也各不相同。这里有两份旅游行程,一份可以让你深入探访河内的殖民地历史;一份能让你发现它活力、动感的现在,你也可以将两张行程合二为一,形成一份最佳的定制旅游指南。Then 河内之访古SEE //Arches, Embellishments 参观:建筑和装饰Architecture is the most visible legacy of the colonial period in Hanoi. Styles that emerged more than a century ago still influence current designs, but for the real deal, head to the old French quarter and the embassy district. Take an architectural tour with a local company like Hidden Hanoi -- or let #39;Vignettes of French Culture in Hanoi,#39; a slim paperback produced by the group Friends of Vietnamese Heritage, guide you. (It#39;s available on Amazon.) 建筑是河内最明显的殖民时期遗产。一个多世纪以前的建筑风格依然对当前的设计发挥着影响,但要看到货真价实的东西,直接去老的法国人聚居区及使馆区。游客可以参加“河内秘密之旅”(Hidden Hanoi)等当地机构组织的河内建筑之旅,或者让《河内的法国文化点滴》(Vignettes of French Culture in Hanoi)这本由“越南传统文化保护友人”组织(Friends of Vietnamese Heritage)制作的小册子带你游览。(这本书在亚马逊网站(Amazon)有售)Early colonial buildings, like the post office at 1 Le Thach St., had tall, arched windows and slate mansard roofs. Plans -- and even materials -- were usually imported from France, and the structures trapped heat in summer and water during torrential rains. But designs quickly evolved -- the Palais de Justice, finished in 1906, had peaked roofs to shed rain; the 1919 Lycee Albert Sarraut had hallways along outside walls as a buffer against the heat. 早期的殖民地建筑,比如黎石街1号(1 Le Thach St.)的邮政大楼,都拥有高挑的拱形窗户和复折式石板屋顶。设计方案甚至是建筑材料通常来自法国,这种结构在夏天难以散热,下暴雨时还会水流不畅。不过房屋的设计很快得到了改进——1906年完工的法院大楼(the Palais de Justice)就修成了尖屋顶,以便下雨时排水;1919年修建的阿尔贝·萨罗学校(Lycee Albert Sarraut)沿外 修建了走廊,利于防暑降温。The Art Nouveau, neoclassical and Machine Age styles that later became popular in France also migrated to Hanoi; they can be seen in mansions that now house embassies and government offices in the relatively quiet Ba Dinh District. Villas along Ba Huyen Street and the north side of Chu Van An Street boast Machine Age hallmarks like flat roofs, porthole windows and geometric window screens. 后来流行于法国的新艺术派(The Art Nouveau)、新古典主义(neoclassical)和机器时代(Machine Age)的风格也迁移到了河内,这类建筑在相对清静的巴亭区(Ba Dinh District)还能看到,如今已被用作使馆和政府机关的办公大楼。巴玄街(Ba Huyen Street)上和朱文安街(Chu Van An)北侧的别墅都留有“机器时代”风格的标志性印记,诸如平屋顶、舷窗式窗户及几何形状窗格。Perhaps the most architecturally significant buildings were built in the 1920s by Ernest Hebrard, a scholar and archaeologist who merged French building styles with Asian details. The roof of his University of Indochina building is edged with Asian-inspired patterns; part of it is tiered like a pagoda. Mr. Hebrard also incorporated traditional details such as carved screens and the roof beams seen in temples into the facades of later buildings, like the Bureau des Finances and what is now the National History Museum. 最具建筑学意义的建筑也许是20世纪20年代由学者兼考古学家埃内斯特·艾伯(Ernest Hebrard)建造的,他把法式建筑风格与亚洲的建筑细节融于一体。由他设计的印度那大学(University of Indochina)大楼,屋顶边缘镶嵌的是亚洲元素的图案,有的部分像佛塔一样层层叠叠。艾伯还把雕屏和寺庙里见到的那种顶梁等传统细节元素融入了后来建筑(比如当年的财政局(the Bureau des Finances)、如今的国家历史物馆(the National History Museum))的外立面中。SHOP //Prizes from the Past购物:来自过去的奖赏Intent on feeling at home in Indochina, as they called it, French colonists imported everything from furniture to jewelry from Europe. Authentic examples can be tough to find, but 54 Traditions, a five-story shop that focuses on antiques related to Vietnamese minorities, also offers up colonial relics like silk fans and tribal jewelry that incorporates old French coins. Over time, local artisans also learned to make French-style goods, including embroidered linens. Bach Thi Ngai, the octogenarian owner of Tan My, learned some of her patterns from French customers as a child. Her shop sells bedding, table linens and clothing stitched with traditional white-on-white floral motifs as well as colorful modern designs. Aaron Joel Santos for The Wall Street JournalMoniq by M品牌装为了在他们所称的印度那感觉像自家一样,法国殖民者从欧洲舶来了从家具到珠宝的所有东西。真品可能很难再找到,但一家五层楼高、专门经营越南少数民族古董的商店54 Traditions也出售绢扇和嵌有法国旧币的少数民族首饰之类的殖民时期纪念品。久而久之,当地的手工艺人也学会了制作包括亚麻绣品在内的法式商品。饰店Tan My 80多岁的老板Bach Thi Ngai就是儿时从法国顾客那儿学会了一些花色图案。她的商店经营床上用品、桌布、缝有传统白色提花图案的装以及五颜六色的现代款饰。If it#39;s fashion you#39;re after, Thu Madelin at Moniq by M, on the western side of Hoan Kiem Lake, takes cues from overseas vintage stores. You can find 1950s-ish tops, polka-dot dresses and high-collared classics -- plus a punky edge. 如果你追求的是时尚,还剑湖(Hoan Kiem Lake)西侧Moniq by M装店的Thu Madelin从国外的复古商店获得了启示。你可以找到20世纪50年代样式的上衣、圆点图案饰和高领古典装,外加浓厚的朋克色。EAT //Frogs Legs and Foie Gras 美食:青蛙腿和鹅肝酱European interlopers in Vietnam introduced novel cooking styles and foods -- like coffee, baked goods, and even vegetables like cabbage and carrots -- that became essential to Vietnamese cuisine. For a literal taste of the French era, join local businessmen at Le Beaulieu, the French restaurant housed in the Hotel Metropole Hanoi, which has been serving classic French dishes like frogs legs and beef Rossini since it opened more than a century ago. Locals of all ages head to cafes for bracingly strong Vietnamese coffee (often flooding it with condensed milk). Cafe Mai, a no-frills spot open since the 1930s, still serves some of the tastiest brew in town. Near the Hanoi Cathedral, the Hanoi Social Club, a newer coffee shop with tile floors and colorful walls, draws a young, artistic crowd. And for a bite that illustrates how important the French influence has been on local food, it#39;s hard to beat a banh mi sandwich, a Vietnamese standard made up of classic French ingredients -- baguette and pate, ham or egg. They#39;re served at street stalls around the city and at the bare-bones sandwich shop Cafe 252, which offers a wide variety of fillings served Hanoi-style, without excessive flavorings or garnishes.闯入越南的欧洲人带来了新的厨艺风格和美食——比如咖啡、焙烤食品、甚至像卷心菜和胡萝卜之类的蔬菜——这些已经成为越南菜不可或缺的一部分。要想实实在在品尝法国殖民时期的美食,游客可以像当地商人一样来到Le Beaulieu餐厅,这家位于河内大都会酒店(Hotel Metropole Hanoi)的法国餐厅自从一个世纪前开业以来一直就供应青蛙腿和罗西尼牛肉等法国菜肴。各种年龄的当地人都喜欢到咖啡馆去喝强力提神的浓厚越南咖啡(经常要加入大量的炼乳)。Cafe Mai是20世纪30年代就已开张的一家廉价咖啡馆,这里的咖啡依然是全城口味最好的。在河内大教堂(the Hanoi Cathedral)附近,Hanoi Social Club这家年代更新、瓷砖地面、色 面的咖啡店吸引了文艺青年人群。要想找一种食物明法国对当地饮食产生了多么重大的影响,没有什么东西能和越南法式三明治(banh mi sandwich)相匹敌了,这种越南的标志性食品用经典的法国原材料做成——法式长棍面包和肉馅、火腿或鸡蛋。这种三明治在河内满城的食品摊上以及简 的Cafe 252三明治店都有出售。Cafe 252三明治店有河内风格的各种馅料,没有添加过多的调味品或配菜。SLEEP //In Classic Quarters 住宿:经典住宅区When the Greek Revival-style Hotel Metropole opened in 1901, it quickly became the preferred address for fancy visitors, from European royals to celebrities like Charlie Chaplin and Noel Coward. Its boulangerie sold French pastries, the bar offered French wine and the hotel hosted jazz nights and showed films. Now the Sofitel Legend Metropole Hanoi, it looks much the same on the outside, with square columns and a scalloped metal awning, and still exudes old-school elegance. The lobby, the bar (which serves some of the best cocktails in the city) and guest rooms in the original wing boast period-appropriate details like teak shutters, ceiling fans and traditional Vietnamese porcelain.Aaron Joel Santos for The Wall Street Journal旧时的完美 河内索菲特传奇大都会酒店(The Sofitel Legend Metropole Hanoi),1901年开业。当希腊复兴风格(Greek Revival-style)的大都会酒店(Hotel Metropole)1901年开业的时候,它很快成为了上流贵宾的首选下榻之处,无论是欧洲的皇室还是查理·卓别林(Charlie Chaplin)和诺埃尔·科沃德(Noel Coward)那样的社会名流,都纷纷选择这里。那时的酒店面包房销售法式甜馅饼,酒吧供应法国葡萄酒,酒店当年还举办爵士之夜音乐会、播放电影。酒店现在已变身河内索菲特传奇大都会酒店(the Sofitel Legend Metropole Hanoi),从外面看几乎和过去别无二致,旧韵依存的方柱与扇形的金属遮阳棚仍然流露出老派建筑的典雅。旧楼一侧的大堂、酒吧(提供全市最好的一些鸡尾酒)和客房保存了柚木百叶窗、吊扇及传统的越南陶瓷等与殖民年代相称的风格细节。Now 河内之探今SEE //Au Courant Art 参观:新潮的艺术Hanoi has been a cultural center as far back as the Bronze Age; to really get a sense of its modern persona, explore it through art rather than architecture. (An exception: the Hanoi Museum in the Tu Liem District; the 4-year-old inverted pyramid by German architecture firm gmp, gives visitors the sense of floating over the landscape.) 河内自遥远的青铜时代(the Bronze Age)就一直是文化中心,要真正了解它的现代形象,游客应该通过艺术而非建筑去发现这座城市。(例外:慈廉区(the Tu Liem District)的河内物馆(the Hanoi Museum) ,这幢由德国GMP建筑师事务所设计、建成四年的倒金字塔建筑给游客一种漂浮于景致之上的感觉。)In the 1980s, Hanoi artists began treating Vietnamese subjects with Western techniques like oil painting. #39;It was the first generation in hundreds of years . . . pretty much allowed to do what they wanted,#39; said Suzanne Lecht, owner of Art Vietnam Gallery, which shows contemporary work. Galleries independent of the government emerged in the 1990s. Vu Dan Tan and his wife, Natalia Kraevskaia, founded Salon Natasha, in their pink home in the Hoan Kiem District. Ms. Kraevskaia now uses it to exhibit the work of her late husband, including his masks made from cigarette boxes. In 1998, artist Nguyen Manh Duc opened Nha San Studio, in his traditional Muong stilt-house in the Ba Dinh District. It now showcases the Nha San Collective, a group of contemporary artists that includes Mr. Nguyen#39;s 29-year-old daughter, Nguyen Phuong Linh. (Works like the #39;Dust Project,#39; vials of dust collected around the world, have earned her an international reputation.) Manzi gallery and cafe shows creations from the past decade, such as Nguyen Minh Thanh#39;s serene self-portraits. 在20世纪80年代,河内的艺术家开始用油画等西方技巧表达越南的主题。“这是数百年来第一代……几乎完全可以随心做事的人,”展出当代作品的Art Vietnam Gallery画廊的老板苏珊·莱希特(Suzanne Lecht)说。独立于政府的民间画廊在20世纪90年代开始出现,Vu Dan Tan和他的妻子纳塔利娅·克雷夫斯卡娅(Natalia Kraevskaia)在还剑区(Hoan Kiem District)他们的粉色住宅中创建了Salon Natasha画廊。克雷夫斯卡娅现在用它来展出她已故丈夫的作品,包括他用香烟盒做的面具。1998年,艺术家Nguyen Manh Duc在巴亭区他的芒族传统吊脚屋里开办了工作室Nha San Studio。该工作室如今陈列的是当代艺术家群体Nha San Collective的作品,其中包括Nguyen Manh Duc 29岁的女儿Nguyen Phuong Linh。(用小瓶收集世界各地尘埃的《尘埃工程》(Dust Project)等作品已经让她赢得了国际声誉。)画廊咖啡厅Manzi展出的是过去十年创作的作品,比如Nguyen Minh Thanh安详的自画像。SHOP //Forward Fashion Aaron Joel Santos for The Wall Street Journal聚焦未来 Rue des Chats精品装店购物:前卫的时尚Though tour promoters would have you believe that all Vietnamese women bike through the city in slim-cut ao dai dresses and conical hats, it#39;s not quite the case. Rue des Chats, in an upscale area in the Hoan Kiem District, offers silk tops, sheath dresses and flowery prints by designers Anhuong Tran and Le Minh. The team behind Boo Skateshop in Hang Gai, draws from current American trends. 虽然旅游推广人士会让你相信所有的越南女性会穿着修身的传统袄代装(ao dai)、头戴斗笠骑车穿行在城市之中,但事实并不一定如此。位于还剑区一个高档消费区的Rue des Chats有售Anhuong Tran和Le Minh等设计师出品的丝绸上衣、紧身连衣裙和印花装。杭盖街(Hang Gai)上的Boo Skateshop装店背后的团队吸取了当今美国流行趋势中的时尚元素。EAT //Fusion of the Future 美食:未来的融合Just as French ingredients have influenced Vietnamese dishes, Vietnamese ingredients and techniques are inspiring a generation of French chefs cooking in Hanoi. At La Badiane, in a refurbished French villa, Benjamin Rascalou serves foie gras with roasted mango slices, and crab remoulade with ginger oil and local asparagus. Didier Corlou of La Verticale offers up slices of duck carpaccio and melon, flavored with five-spice. Taste a twist on traditional ha cao dumplings -- shrimp-and-pork ravioli in fish stock -- at Pots #39;n Pans, a collaboration between Australian and Hanoian chefs in a brick and concrete space. Aaron Joel Santos for The Wall Street JournalLa Verticale餐厅的一道菜正如法国的食材对越南菜产生了影响一样,越南食材和烹饪技术正激发着新一代在河内的法国厨师。修葺一新的法国别墅里的餐厅La Badiane,邦雅曼·拉斯卡鲁(Benjamin Rascalou)推出了烤芒果片配鹅肝酱、以及用生姜油和当地芦笋做的蟹黄酱。La Verticale餐厅的迪迪埃·科卢(Didier Corlou)献上的是五香甜瓜生鸭片。游客还可以在Pots #39;n Pans餐厅尝尝传统的虾饺——在鱼汤中烹煮的虾和猪肉陷水饺,这是澳大利亚与河内厨师在一处砖混结构的房子里合开的餐厅。SLEEP //A Modern View 住宿:现代景观Even as Hanoi becomes a contemporary capital, it looks to its past for inspiration. At the Melia Hanoi hotel, murals of local temples share space with contemporary art. Guestrooms look out onto Chinese, French and glass-and-steel buildings, all mixing together in the heart of the city. 尽管河内正日益成为一座现代化的都城,它仍然还在从过去寻找灵感。在河内美丽雅酒店(the Melia Hanoi hotel),当地寺庙中的壁画与当代艺术齐聚一堂,从客房向外看,中式、法式和玻璃钢架结构的建筑在市中心交相辉映。 /201404/288632

We all know that exercise is good for our physical health. A growing body of research is revealing that physical activity also has powerful implications for our mental health. If you follow my blog, you know that I regularly discuss the importance of existential health: people need to feel like they are living meaningful lives. Might physical exercise boost our existential health? The research says yes.我们都知道锻炼对我们的身体健康很有益处。越来越多的研究正表明,体育活动对我们的心理健康也有很强的影响。如果你曾关注了我的客,你就会知道我经常性的谈论的存在的健康的重要性:人们需要感觉好像他们正过着有意义的生活。体育锻炼有可能增强我们的身体健康吗?研究表明是可以的。For example, research has established that exercise is good for mood. People are happier after they engage in physical exercise and there is evidence that exercise can help with depression (a disorder related to chronic negative mood). In fact, a number of scientists have argued that clinicians should consider prescribing exercise as part of a treatment plan for patients with depression. Critically, studies have demonstrated that people are more likely to perceive their lives as meaningful when they are in a good mood. When you are happy, it is easier to appreciate life and to feel like it is worthwhile. Thus, by boosting mood, exercise may boost meaning.例如,研究已经实锻炼对心情有益处。那些参加体育锻炼后的人会更开心,有据表明,运动对缓解抑郁症有好处(抑郁症,与慢性消极情绪障碍有关)。事实上,许多科学家认为,临床医生应考虑处方锻炼作为抑郁症患者的治疗计划的一部分。更为重要的是,研究表示,当人们心情好的时候更倾向于认为他们的生活是有意义的。当你快乐时,更懂得欣赏生活,觉得它是值得的。因此,通过运动可以提升心情,可以转换意义。Research also suggests that exercise may help people combat anxiety. Similarly, many people use exercise to manage stress. And anxiety and stress can compromise existential health: people are less likely to perceive life as meaningful when they are experiencing anxiety and stress. Thus, by offering relief from stress and anxiety, exercise may promote existential health.研究同时表明,锻炼可以帮助人们抵制焦虑。类似地,许多人通过锻炼减少压力。焦虑和压力可以威胁身体健康:当人们正处于焦虑和压力中时,不太可能会感知到生活是有意义的。因此,通过运动可以缓解压力和焦虑,可以促进身体健康。In addition, exercise can promote social bonds and social bonds promote existential health. Of course people often exercise alone. However, it is also quite common for working out to be a social activity. Want to make new connections? Try signing up for a yoga or spin class or finding a local running group. Take dance lessons or martial arts. Or join a local adult soccer or softball league. Even going to the weight room at the gym regularly each week will afford you an opportunity to make new friends.另外,锻炼能够促进社会联系,社会联系又促进身体健康。当然,人们经常独自锻炼。然而,一起出去就像社会工作一样,这也是很常见的。想要建立新的联系吗?尝试注册一个瑜伽或旋转类项目的班,或参加附近的跑步小组、舞蹈班、武术班。或加入当地的成人足球或垒球联赛。甚至去健身房,每周定期在健身房将会提供一个机会结交新朋友。Finally, research indicates that exercise can improve self-esteem and self-esteem is highly associated with existential health. When people feel good about themselves, they also feel like their lives are meaningful.最后,调查显示,锻炼可以增强自尊心,自尊心与身体健康有着紧密联系。当人们自我感觉很好时,他们也会觉得生活是有意义的。It is worth noting that the relationship between exercise and self-esteem can be complicated. For example, studies suggest that for women the relationship between exercise and self-esteem depends on the motives for exercise and attitudes towards one’s body. If women are exercising purely out of concerns about their physical appearance and they are not satisfied with their bodies, exercise can be associated with low self-esteem. In general, exercise is more likely to be associated with positive self-esteem if people are exercising for health and fitness and not solely to improve body image.值得注意的是,锻炼和自尊心之间的关系可能很复杂。例如,研究表明,对女性来说,锻炼和自尊之间的关系取决于锻炼的动机和个人的态度。如果女性锻炼纯粹是担心她们的外表,不满意他们的身材,那么锻炼可能与低自尊心相关联。一般来说,如果人们锻炼是为了健康和健身,而不是单单在于完美身材,锻炼更有可能是与积极的自尊心相关联的。Many exercise enthusiasts will tell you that their daily workouts are a critical part of maintaining their mental health and well-being. Exercise regulates mood and helps people cope with the challenges of life. There are good reasons to also believe that exercise helps people in their quest for meaning in life. So exercise. It is good for your existential health.许多运动爱好者们将会告诉你,他们的日常锻炼是保持心理和生理健康的重要部分。锻炼能调节情绪,帮助人们应对生活中的挑战。还有更好的理由说明运动能帮助人们追求人生的意义。所以说锻炼,对你的健康很有益处。 /201410/337778

If an exercise wheel sits in a forest, will mice run on it?如果把跑轮放在森林里,小鼠会上去跑步吗?Every once in a while, science asks a simple question and gets a straightforward answer.科学时常会提出一个简单的问题,然后得到一个直截了当的。In this case, yes, they will. And not only mice, but also rats, shrews, frogs and slugs.这个问题的是,会。不仅小鼠会,大鼠、鼩鼱、青蛙和蛞蝓都会。True, the frogs did not exactly run, and the slugs probably ended up on the wheel by accident, but the mice clearly enjoyed it. That, scientists said, means that wheel-running is not a neurotic behavior found only in caged mice.当然,青蛙算不上在跑,蛞蝓可能也是偶然来到跑轮上的,但是小鼠明显是真的喜欢跑轮。科学家表示,这说明在跑轮上跑步并不是关在笼子里的老鼠才有的神经性举动。They like the wheel.它们喜欢跑轮。Two researchers in the Netherlands did an experiment that it seems nobody had tried before. They placed exercise wheels outdoors in a yard garden and in an area of dunes, and monitored the wheels with motion detectors and automatic cameras.荷兰的两名研究员做了一项似乎从来没人做过的实验。他们在室外的院子和一块沙地里放置了一些跑轮,并通过运动检测器和自动相机对这些跑轮进行监测。They were inspired by questions from animal welfare committees at universities about whether mice were really enjoying wheel-running, an activity used in all sorts of studies, or were instead like bears pacing in a cage, stressed and neurotic. Would they run on a wheel if they were free?他们的灵感来自一些大学的动物福利委员会所提出的问题。这些委员会质疑小鼠是否真的喜欢在轮子上跑步——所有研究都会用到这个活动,或者还是像在笼子里踱步的熊那样,出于压力和紧张。如果处于自由状态,它们还会在轮子上跑步吗?Now there is no doubt. Mice came to the wheels like human beings to a health club holding a spring membership sale. They made the wheels spin. They hopped on, hopped off and hopped back on.目前,这一点毫无疑问。到跑轮上跑步的小鼠,就像来到正在举行春季促销的健身俱乐部的人类一样。他们开始让轮子转动。它们跳上去、跳下来,然后再跳上去。;When I saw the first mice, I was extremely happy,; said Johanna H. Meijer at Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands. ;I had to laugh about the results, but at the same time, I take it very seriously. It#39;s funny, and it#39;s important at the same time.;“当我看见第一只小鼠时,我非常高兴,”荷兰莱顿大学医学中心(Leiden University Medical Center)的约翰娜·H·梅杰(Johanna H. Meijer)说。“这些结果不能不让我觉得可笑,但同时,我也会认真对待它。这很有趣,同时也很重要。”Dr. Meijer#39;s day job is as a ;brain electrophysiologist; studying biological rhythms in mice. She relished the chance to get out of the laboratory and study wild animals, and in a way that no one else had.梅杰的正职工作是研究小鼠生物节律的“脑电生理学家”。她非常享受走出实验室,以前所未有的方式研究野生动物的机会。She said Konrad Lorenz, the great-grandfather of animal behavior studies, once mentioned in a letter that some of his caged rats had escaped and then returned to his garden to use running wheels placed there.她说,动物行为研究的鼻祖康拉德·洛伦茨(Konrad Lorenz)曾在一封信中提到,有些被他关在笼子里的大鼠逃走后,又回到他的花园,到放在那里的跑轮上跑步。But, Dr. Meijer said, the Lorenz observation ;was one sentence.;但是,梅杰说,洛伦茨的观察“只是一句话”。For the experiment, the wheels were enclosed so that small animals could come and go but so that larger animals could not knock them over. Dr. Meijer set up motion sensors and automatic cameras. Several years and 12,000 snippets of later, she and Yuri Robbers, also a Leiden researcher, reported the results. They were released online Tuesday in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.为了进行试验,跑轮被围了起来,这样小动物就能来去自由,大动物则无法把它们撞翻。梅杰安放了运动传感器和自动摄影机。她和同为莱顿研究人员的尤里·罗伯斯(Yuri Robbers)报告称,几年后,他们获得了1.2万个视频片段。周二,这些结果被公布在了《英国皇家学报B》(Proceedings of the Royal Society B.)的网站上。Gene D. Block, chancellor of the University of California, Los Angeles, was not involved with the paper but knows Dr. Meijer and had seen the wheel set up in her garden. He said the study made it clear that wheel-running is ;some type of rewarding behavior; and ;probably not driven by stress or anxiety.;加州大学洛杉矶分校校长吉恩·D·布洛克(Gene D. Block)与这篇论文无关,但是他认识梅杰,而且还见过她在花园里放置的跑轮。他说,研究表明在跑轮上跑步是“一种有益的行为”,“可能不是出于压力或焦虑”。Mice accounted for 88 percent of the wheel-running events, and spent one minute to 18 on the wheel. The other animals each accounted for less than 1 percent. Frogs, though there were very few, were seen to get on the wheel, get off and get back on.在所有在跑轮上跑步的动物中,小鼠占了88%,在跑轮上花费的时间为1到18分钟。其他每种动物所占的比例不到1%。虽然数量不多,但是我们也看到青蛙爬上跑轮,爬下来,然后又爬回去。Russell Foster, a circadian rhythm researcher at Oxford University, said he the paper and sent it out to other scientists on behalf of the Proceedings and was delighted when peer reviews from other scientists were positive.罗素·福斯特(Russell Foster)是牛津大学(Oxford University)的一名生理节律研究员。他说他读过这篇论文,并代表《英国皇家学报B》把它发给了其他科学家。其他科学家都对此持肯定态度,这让他感到高兴。Marc Bekoff, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Colorado who is active in the animal welfare movement, said in an email that he thought the paper did show that wheel-running could be a ;voluntary activity,; but that mice in labs may be doing more of it because of the stress of confinement.马克·贝科夫(Marc Bekoff)是科罗拉多大学(University of Colorado)的一名生态学和进化生物学教授,积极参与动物福利运动。他在电子邮件中说,他认为这篇论文的确表明跑轮运动可能是一种“自愿活动”,但是实验室的老鼠可能会因为禁闭的压力而进行更多跑轮运动。;Wild bears will often pace back and forth,; he wrote, ;but in captivity, the rate of doing it seems to be greatly heightened.;“野熊经常会来回踱步,”他写道,“但是如果被关起来,他们踱步的频率似乎就会大幅度增加。”As to why the mice, frogs or perhaps even slugs run, or move, on the wheel, Dr. Meijer said she thought that ;there is an intrinsic motivation for animals, or should I say organisms, to be active.;至于为什么小鼠、青蛙或者甚至连蛞蝓都会在跑轮上跑步或移动,梅杰说她认为“动物天生具有行动的欲望,或者说保持活跃的机制”。Huda Akil, co-director of the Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute at the University of Michigan, who has studied reward systems, said: ;It#39;s not a surprise. All you have to do is watch a bunch of little kids in a playground or a park. They run and run and run.;研究过奖励机制的密歇根大学(University of Michigan)分子和行为神经研究中心(Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute)主任胡达·阿基勒(Huda Akil)说:“这并不意外。你需要做的就是看一群小孩在操场或公园里玩耍。他们会一直跑,一直跑,一直跑。”Dr. Akil said that in humans, running activates reward pathways in the brain, although she pointed out that there are innate differences in temperament in all sorts of animals, including humans. Rats that do not like to run can be bred. And plenty of people do all they can to avoid jogging, cycling and elliptical machines.阿基勒说,在人类身上,跑步运动可以激活大脑里的奖励回路,虽然她指出所有动物的秉性都存在固有的不同,人类也是如此。可以培育出不爱跑的大鼠。而极尽可能地避免慢跑、骑车和玩椭圆机的人类也多得是。Presumably, the same is true of wild mice. While some were setting the wheel on fire with their exertions, others, out of camera range, may have been sprawled out on the mouse equivalent of a lounge chair, shaking their whiskers in dismay and disbelief.大概对于野鼠而言也是如此。虽然有些老鼠正在跑轮上奋力奔跑,但是那些不在摄像机覆盖范围内的老鼠,可能正慵懒地躺在老鼠版的休闲椅上,在惊恐或犹疑中抖着胡须。 /201409/326501

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