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2017年10月21日 16:20:48来源:问医时讯

  • Your favourite coffee shops你们最爱的咖啡店In Food amp; Drink By Sari Zeidler B饮食专栏 Sari Zeidler Whether it stirs up a sense of adventure for the day ahead, or helps you settle in for a cosy evening of contemplation - there#39;s nothing quite like a good cup o#39; joe. So when we travel, we just follow the locals to the best spot in town! From Bangkok to San Francisco, London to Seoul, our ers shared snapshots of their favourite coffee shops from around the globe.不管这杯咖啡是搅起了你一天的新冒险,或是让你拥有了一个安静沉思的夜晚,的确没有什么能像这杯饮品一样让你感觉愉悦了。因此,当我们旅行时,我们只需要跟随指引前往镇子里最好咖啡店就能寻访到这么一杯好咖啡了。从曼谷到圣佛朗西斯科,从伦敦到首尔,我们来自世界各地的读者用摄像机记录下了他们沿途遇到的最爱的咖啡店。中国境内的咖啡店:Base Camp of Photographer Cafe in Danba, a small town in the Chinese province of Sichuan, has an intriguing name which I still can#39;t quite make sense of. More than nine hours drive from the nearest city, this cafe does proper fresh coffee, to find in these parts. The view has to be the finest of any cafe in all of China. (Daniel McCrohan)Origo café, China在中国四川省一个小镇:丹巴里,有一家拥有非常有趣却让人不太能搞懂其名字意义的咖啡店——Base Camp of Photographer Cafe。从附近最近的城市前往小镇需要9个小时,但这家咖啡店的咖啡绝对会让你觉得不虚此行,咖啡的口味是附近最新鲜正宗的,而且在这家咖啡店里能看到全中国其他任何一家咖啡店都看不到的美景。(Daniel McCrohan)Origo café, ChinaShenzhen is no slouch when it comes to café culture. Newly opened this year, the uber-quirky Origo café is more like a museum shop than a haven of the brown stuff. There are as many drink varieties as objects d#39;art. (Kelvin Hayes)提到中国的咖啡文化,不能不提深圳,今年新开张的城市快捷origo咖啡店,更像是一个咖啡物馆,而非简单的咖啡天堂。这里有许多种类的咖啡饮品,每杯都是一件艺术品。 /201401/273683。
  • My sleep schedule:我的睡眠时间表是这样的:8:30: Get y for bed8:30: 准备上床睡觉9:00: Be in bed9:00: 上床9:30: Hopefully be sleeping9:30: 希望自己入睡9:55: Definitely be sleeping9:55: 确定自己要入睡10:00: Oh god, you’re not asleep? Why aren’t you asleep? You know what happens when you can’t sleep. Well, you just keep thinking about sleep. I mean wait, don’t think about sleep! Just don’t even think about the word.10:00:我的天啊,你还没睡?你为什么不睡?你知道自己不睡觉时将发生些什么。好吧,只想着睡觉吧。我的意思是,等一下,别再想睡觉这件事啦!甚至连这个词也别去想。10:05: Now it’s ruined, it’s all ruined.10:05:一切都毁了,全毁了。12:30: Is someone vacuuming? I am pretty sure someone is vacuuming. I will find them, I will find them and I will hurt them.12:30:有人在用真空吸尘器打扫卫生吗?我确定有人在这么做。我一定要把他们找到,拽出来痛打一顿。1:00: silent rage until sleep comes1:00: 无声的愤怒,直至睡意袭来Much of my life is dictated by my fear of not falling asleep at the right time. I calculate how much sleep I need down to the exact minute. I lay in bed each night waiting for the unyielding thought-vomit to occur. I used to think that the endless stream of thoughts that plagued my nightly routine were unique to me, but I couldn’t have been more wrong.我生活中的许多时光都充斥着我对于无法适时入睡的恐惧。我计算了我所需的睡眠时间并精确到了分钟。每晚我躺在床上等待着那些执着的想法从脑袋中涌出。我曾经认为困扰我夜间休息的那无尽的思维洪流仅仅是我所独有。但是我大错特错了。If you have trouble turning your mind off at night, you aren’t alone. It is estimated that 30-to-40 million Americans have a sleep disorder and an additional 20 million have occasional difficulty sleeping. It’s so bad that the Centers for Disease Control considers it a public health epidemic. To unearth the reasons why we can’t turn off our mind at night, we should first understand the body’s mechanisms which govern sleep.如果你无法在晚上关掉你的思维阀门,你不是一个人。据估计,有3,000-4,000万美国人都患有睡眠障碍,另有2,000万人患有偶发性失眠。糟糕的是,疾病控制中心认为这是一种关乎公众健康的传染病。要明白为什么我们在夜间无法停止思考,首先我们应该弄懂我们身体中管理睡眠的机制。Until as recently as the 1950s scientists believed that falling asleep was a completely passive process. Scientists now think that the body’s wakefulness and sleep mode is dictated by a two-process model. Process S: Promotes our desire to sleep and inhibits our arousal centers at night. Process C: Maintains our wakefulness during the day. This two-process model is also influenced by the circadian rhythm.直至20世纪50年代,科学家才相信,睡眠完全是一个被动过程。现在,科学家认为身体的觉醒和睡眠模式是一种双进程模型(two-process model)。分为S进程:在夜间提升我们的睡眠渴望,抑制我们的觉醒中枢。以及C进程:在白天让我们保持清醒。这种双进程模式也被昼夜节律[1](circadian rhythm)所影响。The circadian rhythm is the body’s clock that regulates our activities and behaviors. It’s controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)#8202;—#8202;a part of the brain known as the circadian rhythm pacemaker. Morning light lets the SCN know ‘Hey, it’s time to get up and start this process over again.’ As the sun sets, the SCN signals our body to calm down and prepare for sleep.昼夜节律是身体的时钟,管理着我们的活动和行为。昼夜节律由视交叉上核(suprachiasmatic nucleus-SCN)所控制,视交叉上核是大脑的一部分,被称为昼夜节律起搏器。早晨的光线让视交叉上核知道“嘿,该起床了,重新再开始这一过程吧”。随着日落,视交叉上核给我们的身体发出信号,让身体平静下来,准备睡觉。Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can prevent us from falling asleep at night and feeling overly tired during the day. These disruptions can also adversely effect our health.昼夜节律如果被破坏,将会阻止我们在夜间入睡,让我们在白天感到极度疲惫。这种破坏也会对我们的健康产生有害影响。(Night) Shift workers have an increased risk of heart problems, digestive disturbances, and emotional and mental problems, all of which may be related to their sleeping problems. The number and severity of workplace accidents also tend to increase during the night shift.(夜班)倒班工人患心脏疾病、消化紊乱以及情绪和精神疾病的风险更高,这些都与他们的睡眠问题相关。夜班期间,车间事故的数量和严重性也会有所上升。Okay, so we understand the process that drives us to sleep, but what happens to our bodies once we are in bed?好吧,虽然我们理解了睡眠的运行过程,但是当我们上床睡觉以后,我们的身体会发生什么呢?There are two kinds of sleep, Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep and Non-REM (NREM) sleep. Both of which are necessary for the body to go through its restorative process. There are also five stages of sleep. The entire process takes about 90-120 minutes. In an ideal situation, it would look something like this:睡眠有两种形式,分别是快速眼动(REM)睡眠和非快速眼动(NREM)睡眠。这两种睡眠对于处于恢复过程中的身体来说都十分必要。睡眠也有五个阶段,整个过程需要90-120分钟。在一种理想的情况下,睡眠看起来是这样的:When we can’t turn off the mind it is because we are having trouble transitioning from the alpha waves of stage 1 to the theta-band waves of stage two. Those with severe sleep disorders often enter REM sleep immediately upon falling asleep. As we begin the transition into sleep our brains are letting go of a lot, but this is by no means a passive process. Our brains are reordering and assessing the day’s events, working to promote new memory formations, and cleaning up debris.我们无法关掉思维的阀门,是因为我们无法将第一阶段的α脑波转化成第二阶段的θ脑波。那些患有严重睡眠障碍的人通常在入睡后就立刻进入快速眼动睡眠。当我们开始入睡时,我们的大脑会非常放松,但是这并不是一个被动的过程。我们的大脑会重新排列并评估白天的事务,促进新的记忆形成,清空记忆碎片。Turning off our mind#8202;—#8202;as anyone who has tried to do will tell you#8202;—#8202;is easier said than done. There’s no magical switch you can flip to make yourself fall asleep, but there are some tricks you can do to help quiet your mind.正如任何曾经尝试过的人都会告诉我的那样,关掉思维阀门说来容易做来难。你没有魔法开关,按下去就能入睡,但是有一些有助于你让脑袋静一静的小诀窍。1.Cool yourself down1. 给自己降温Part of the body’s process for falling asleep each night involves a lowering of the body temperature. If you are in a room that is too hot it can disturb your internal sleep processes. To get slightly more technical, the metabolism of your brains frontal cortex wants to be cool when falling asleep. Insomniacs have a higher metabolism in their frontal cortex which is said to contribute to their inability to sleep. The body loses its ability to regulate its temperature at night, so finding the right balance is important.每天晚上,我们身体的入睡都包含体温降低这一过程。如果你处在一个非常热的屋子中,这会扰乱你身体内部的睡眠过程。用稍微技术化一点的语言来说,当睡眠时,你大脑中额叶皮质的新陈代谢也需要放慢速度。失眠症患者的额叶皮质代谢水平更高,这也导致了他们没有入睡的能力。身体丧失了夜间调节体温的能力,因此寻找到一种正确的平衡(模式)十分重要。2. Buy red lights2. 购买红光灯You know that sort of bluish glow given off by our TVs, computers, and phones? That seemingly serene blue light is literally robbing you of sleep. The short-wavelength of blue light stops the production of melatonin— a hormone necessary for sleep. Exposure to blue light can even throw off our circadian rhythm. If purchasing all red lights is a bit too drastic for you, aim to reduce the amount of light you use at least two hours before bed.你知道我们的电视、电脑和手机发出的光稍稍有些偏 蓝色吗?那种看似平静的蓝光其实会剥夺你的睡眠。短波蓝光会抑制睡眠所需激素——褪黑素的产生。置身在蓝光之中甚至能够让我们不再遵守昼夜节律。如果全部购买红光灯对你来说有点极端,那么就至少在你睡前两小时降低你所使用的灯光量吧。3. Breathe out of your left nostril3.用左侧鼻孔呼吸In yoga this is called nadi shodhana or alternate nostril breathing. Cover your right nostril and practice breathing in and out of your left nostril ten-times. The practice of breathing through your left nostril is said to help relax your sympathetic nervous system. Just simply focusing on the task of breathing can help you drown out other distractions.在瑜伽中,这被称为“纳地净化调息”(nadi shodhana)或者“鼻孔交换呼吸法”。堵住你的右侧鼻孔,练习用左侧鼻孔呼吸十次。据说这种用左侧鼻孔进行的呼吸练习能够放松你的交感神经系统。仅仅集中精力呼吸就能够帮助你忘记其他的杂事。4. Go outside in the morning4.早晨出门转转Being in the sun#8202;—#8202;especially upon first waking#8202;—#8202;tells our circadian rhythm to reset itself. The best time for this to happen is between 6 and 8:30 a.m. You should aim for at least 30-minutes of sun exposure a day to receive the maximum benefits. Sunlight inhibits the production of melatonin, which is responsible for making you tired. Being tired during the day will likely rob you of that feeling later at night when you need it the most.晒晒太阳——尤其是刚醒来的时候——能够让我们的昼夜节律自我重置。最好的晒太阳时机是上午6:00至8:30之间。为了获取最大的好处,你至少应该每天晒半小时太阳。日光抑制了褪黑素的合成,而褪黑素会让你感到疲倦。白天的疲倦会让你在夜晚丧失这种感受,而在夜晚,我们才最需要疲倦的感觉。5. Visualize yourself asleep5.形象化你的睡眠You are a leaf on the wind, watch how you soar off to sleep land. Visualizations draw focus away from thoughts which have emotional content. Experts say it is important to associate positivity with sleeping. This can help remove some of the anxiety we have built up around falling asleep each night. Researchers at Colorado College recently found that the simple act of believing that you received more sleep than you did is enough to give your brain some of the positive effects of sleep.你是风中的一片叶,观察一下你是如何飞舞到睡眠大陆上的。形象化能将我们的注意力从带有情绪内容的想法中转移出来。专家说,将睡眠同实在的事物联系起来是非常重要的。这可以帮助你消除一些在每晚入睡过程中产生的焦虑。科罗拉多大学的研究者近来发现,一种简单的行为,即相信自己的睡眠时间比实际睡眠时间多,足够给予你的大脑一些积极的睡眠效果。There are a lot of really useful sleeping tips out there, but they are all variations on the same theme. Preparing the mind and body for sleep is all about reducing the emotional content in our thoughts and eliminating as much external stimuli as possible. You should absolutely explore a variety of sleep routines and practices. Doing so can help you understand the barriers that prevent you from achieving a quiet mind.除此之外,还有许多非常实用的睡眠小妙招,但是它们都是基于同一个原理变化而来。让思维和身体为睡眠做准备,就要减少我们思维中的情绪内容,尽可能多地消除外部刺激。你绝对有必要发掘各种各样的睡眠方法,进行各种各样的睡眠练习。这么做能帮助你理解那些妨碍你拥有一个平静思维的桎梏。Sleep is a process. It doesn’t just happen the moment you get into bed. The body is preparing itself for sleep all day. It actually helped me to think of sleep something ongoing as opposed to something that was just supposed to happen. It took some of the pressure off of me. My body was actually made to do this. Trusting and listening to my body’s natural process really helped me find a better way to fall asleep.睡眠是一个过程。它不仅仅发生于你躺在床上的时刻。我们的身体一天到晚都在为睡眠做准备。它实际上有助于我将睡眠想象成为一个不间断发生的过程,而不是一件应该会发生的事情。这让我减轻了一些压力。我的身体其实就是这样构造的。相信并倾听我们身体的自然过程,的确有助于我找到一种更好的入睡方法。 /201410/335272。
  • If you’re middle-aged and miserable, don’t despair: Give it a decade or two and you’ll be feeling like a carefree young person again.如果你现在身处中年,迷惘痛苦,千万不要绝望:再等一二十年,你就又会像年轻人一样无忧无虑了。Researchers have revealed that life satisfaction peaks at 23 and 69. People in their early twenties overestimate their future life satisfaction by an average of around 10 per cent, before the disappointments of life kick in.研究人员发现,人在23岁和69岁时的生活满意数值达到最高点。在令人失望的生活到来之前,平均大约有10%的人会在二十出头时对未来生活的满意程度过于乐观。They face decades of declining expectation before hitting their lowest point in their mid-fifties, when regrets over unrealised dreams are at their greatest. Satisfaction levels finally start to rise again after 55 and peak once more at 69, according to a study by the Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics.伦敦政经学院经济表现研究中心的调查表明,此后几十年中,人们对生活的期望会越来越低,直至五十五岁左右时满意度降到最低点。这时,他们会后悔没有在自己状态最好的时候实现曾经的梦想。但过了55岁,满意度曲线又会重新上升,在69岁时重回巅峰状态。Those aged 68 underestimate their future happiness by 4.5 per cent, meaning they no longer face disappointment, the researchers found. The findings suggest that actresses Emma Watson and Kristen Stewart, both 23, should relish this year.研究发现,只有4.5%的人到68岁时会低估他们的幸福程度,这意味着他们不再感到失望。根据这个研究,两位23岁的女演员艾玛·沃森和克里斯汀·斯图尔特都应该好好享受这一年。If the research is borne out they will be optimistic but are likely to face disappointment in the next four decades. Previous studies have found that human contentment follows a U-shaped pattern, with those in their early twenties and the retired ranking highest.如果该研究正确,那接下来40年里即使她们保持乐观心态,也更有可能遇到令人沮丧的事情。之前有研究显示,人们的幸福程度呈U形曲线状,刚刚二十几岁的年轻人和退休老人的幸福程度最高。The pattern has been observed in more than 50 nations and across class and financial divides. And a study by the National Academy of Sciences in the US found evidence that even great apes can suffer a mid-life crisis.这一曲线在50多个国家都适用,而且不分阶级、不分经济情况。美国国家科学院甚至发现就连高等类人猿也会受到“中年危机”的影响。The CEP paper, to be published this week, is the first to examine how our expectations compare to reality at different life stages. Researcher Hannes Schwandt, 30, analysed happiness levels for 23,161 Germans aged 17 to 85.经济表现研究中心的论文将于本周发表,这是第一份以人类现实年龄和理想生活预期作对比的研究报告。为此,30岁的研究者汉内斯·施瓦德调查了23161名17至85岁的德国人的幸福程度。Dr Schwandt, who is based at Princeton University in the US but is a visiting researcher at the London centre, said: ‘One theory is that the U-shape is driven by unmet aspirations which are painfully felt in midlife but beneficially abandoned later in life.施瓦德士本在美国普林斯顿大学工作,现在在伦敦客座研究员。他说:“有一种理论称,无法满足的欲望催生了U形曲线,这种痛苦在中年时期尤为强烈,但随着人慢慢变老,放弃一些追求,便又重新快乐起来了。”‘People in their fifties could learn from the elderly, who generally feel less regret. They should try not to be frustrated by their unmet expectations because they are probably not feeling much worse than their peers.’“五十多岁的人应该向比他们更老的人学习,大部分老人都不会后悔太多事情。不要因为没有达到预期而沮丧不安,因为他们的同龄人大概也处于相同状态。” /201408/317621。
  • My 11-year-old grandsons, Stefan and Tomas, weigh about 80 pounds each. On the 20-minute walk to their middle school and the uphill walk home, they carry backpacks that weigh about 12 pounds each, or 15 percent of their body weight.我的两个孙子斯蒂芬(Stefan)和托马斯(Tomas)现年11岁,体重都是80来磅(合36公斤)。他们每天要步行去初中上学,回家时还得走一段上坡路,在这段20分钟的路程里,他俩要各自背着12磅(合5.4公斤)的书包,也就是说,书包的重量达到他们体重的15%。When extra books or clothing, a musical instrument or other equipment are added, the weight they carry can reach 20 pounds. But whatever the figure, those packs are simply too heavy for their still-forming bones and muscles.如果加上额外的书本、衣、一件乐器或别的用品,他们要背的书包很可能达到20磅重(合9公斤)。但不管究竟有多重,他们的书包对于仍在发育中的骨骼和肌肉来说,未免过于沉重了。Heavy backpacks don#39;t just sap children of energy that might be better used doing schoolwork or playing sports. Lugging them can also lead to chronic back pain, accidents and possibly lifelong orthopedic damage.沉重的书包不仅会消耗孩子们本可以用来更好地做功课或参加体育活动的精力。负担过重,可会导致慢性背痛、发生意外,甚至有可能带来终生的骨骼伤害。Among the risks described by Dr. Pierre D#39;Hemecourt, a sports medicine specialist at Children#39;s Hospital Boston, are stress fractures in the back, inflammation of growth cartilage, back and neck strain, and nerve damage in the neck and shoulders.波士顿儿童医院(Children#39;s Hospital Boston)的运动医学专家皮埃尔·戴米库(Pierre D#39;Hemecourt)描述了一系列危害,包括背部应力性骨折、生长板软骨发炎、后背和颈部压力、以及背部和肩膀的神经损害。The federal Consumer Product Safety Commission calculated that carrying a 12-pound backpack to and from school and lifting it 10 times a day for an entire school year puts a cumulative load on youngsters#39; bodies of 21,600 pounds — the equivalent of six mid-sized cars.联邦消费者产品安全委员会(Consumer Product Safety Commission )计算得出:假设一个学生每天背着12磅的书包往返,每天抬起书包的次数以10次计,一学年下来,这个孩子的身体总共要承担21600磅(约合9800公斤)的负担——相当于6台中型小汽车。The issue has been raised repeatedly in countries all over the world for more than a decade. In December 1999, doctors in Milan reported in The Lancet that 34.8 percent of Italian schoolchildren carried more than 30 percent of their body weight at least once a week, ;exceeding limits proposed for adults.;在过去这十几年来,世界各国都在反复探讨这个问题。1999年12月,米兰的医生们在《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上发表报告称,每周至少有一次,34.8%的意大利学童要背负超过自身体重30%的书包,“这超出了向成年人推荐的负重上限。”The load carried by these sixth-graders was equivalent to a 176-pound man hauling around a 39-pound backpack each day.而这些六年级学生所扛的书包重量,相当于一个176磅(合80公斤)的男性每天扛着39磅(合17.8公斤)的背包四处走。But even in this digital era, when at least some schoolwork can be done online, there has been no apparent decrease in the burdens we ask the younger generation to tote around all day.可是就算身处这个数字时代,当至少部分作业可以在线完成时,我们让孩子们每天背负的书包重量却并没有显著的减轻。Pack Animals小小蜗牛背着壳In the newest study, published in March in the Archives of Disease in Childhood, researchers in Spain assessed the backpacks and back health of 1,403 pupils ages 12 to 17. More than 60 percent were carrying packs weighing more than 10 percent of their body weight, and nearly one in five had schoolbags that weighed more than 15 percent of their own weight.在3月发表在《儿童疾病档案》(Archives of Disease in Childhood)最新研究中,西班牙的研究人员评估了1403名12-17岁儿童的书包重量和背部健康。超过60%的学生所背的书包重量超过其体重的10%,近五分之一书包重量超过体重的15%。Not surprisingly, one in four students said they had suffered back pain for more than 15 days during the previous year; scoliosis — curvature of the spine — accounted for 70 percent of those with pain. The remaining 30 percent had either low back pain or contractures — continuous, involuntary muscle contractions. Girls faced a greater risk of back pain than boys, and their risk increased with age (and, presumably, years of lugging around their heavy packs).这个结果也不出所料:在以上学生中,每四人中就有一人说,自己在前一年感到背痛的天数超过了15天;脊椎侧弯——脊椎出现弯曲)——在出现背痛孩子中的比例达70%。剩下的这30%学生,要么有腰痛,要么有挛缩——肌肉持续的、非随意的紧缩。比起男孩,女孩出现背痛的风险更大,而且风险随年纪增长而上升(可以推想,这跟年复一年背着重重的书包有关)。Pain often results when the weight of the pack pulls children backward, prompting them to bend forward or to arch their backs to keep the pack centered. This position can compress the spine, pressing the vertebrae on the discs between them.沉重的书包会压得孩子往后仰,为了保持后背的中立位置,他们得往前弓背或者猫起腰来,疼痛往往因此发生。这种姿势可以挤压脊柱,压迫腰椎间盘。If the child has to lean forward when walking with a loaded pack, it is too heavy. At the very least, it is a recipe for poor posture and chronically rounded shoulders. And if these forward-bending children must raise their heads to see where they are going, neck pain and pinched nerves can be the result.如果孩子在背着书包走路时身体前倾,就说明书包太重了。这样至少会导致孩子姿势不佳,长此以往会出现圆肩(即肩胛骨向前挤——译注)。如果这些身体前倾的孩子还得抬起头来看看自己走到哪里去了,则会导致颈部疼痛和神经病变。Children also accidentally whack schoolmates with heavy backpacks while walking in crowded hallways. Sometimes the pack falls from a shelf or desk, or trips someone while resting on the floor. A too-heavy pack can throw the wearer off-balance on a staircase.在背着重重的书包走过拥挤的走廊时,孩子们可能不小心抡到别的同学。有时书包会从架子或课桌上坠落,搁在地上时则会绊倒别人。背着过重的书包,孩子甚至有可能在上下楼梯时失去平衡。Reducing the Load减轻负累In the interest of sanity and safety, my son (the twins#39; father) purchased used instruments for them to keep at home so they would not have to lug a trombone or clarinet back and forth to school along with their other paraphernalia.考虑到卫生和安全因素,我的儿子(也就是这对双胞胎的父亲)为他们购买了二手乐器,供他们在家中使用,这样孩子们就不会在带着其他学习用品的同时,还得拖着长号或单簧管往返于学校和家了。Then he conducted an inventory of their packs and sent it by e-mail to their teachers to find out just how many of the items had to be carried to and from school each day.然后他对孩子们书包里装的东西列了份目录,通过邮件发给老师们,好确认每天有哪些东西必须背到学校再背回家。One teacher responded with some helpful suggestions, including having the boys take a few minutes at the end of the school day to determine what they really needed to take home with them.一位老师提供了一些有益的建议,包括两个孩子每天放学时,先花几分钟考虑下,有哪些东西他们觉得非得带回家不可。;They don#39;t have to bring everything home every night,; Aimee Fournier, their English teacher, wrote. ;But a lot of kids don#39;t take much time at their lockers to sort out what they do need.;英语老师艾米·弗涅尔(Aimee Fournier)在信中写道:“他们没必要每晚把所有东西都背回家,但很多孩子不会在储物柜前驻足停留,考虑自己的真实需要。”Rather than lug around the entire load all day, most books can be left in the child#39;s locker, if there is enough time between classes. Only those needed for the next class or two need be taken along.大部分书并不需要整天背来背去,如果课间休息的时间够用,可以把书放在孩子的储物柜里,只带下面一两节课要用的教材即可。In schools facing less of a financial pinch than New York City#39;s, teachers might be able to provide duplicates of at least some of the often-used heavy textbooks to keep at home.在那些经费不像纽约市这么捉襟见肘的校区,老师们也许可以给学生提供至少部分备用书,好让家里也存一套常用的厚重教材。Dr. Bryan Lane, an osteopath in Temple, Tex., urges parents to peek inside their children#39;s backpacks and suggest items that could be left at home or at school. He studied 188 children in kindergarten through fifth grade and found that on average the children toted packs equaling 14 percent of their body weight. A third of the parents had never checked the contents of the packs, and 96 percent had never weighed them.德克萨斯州坦普尔市的整骨医师布莱恩·兰(Bryan Lane)提醒家长们,他们应当了解孩子们书包中放了哪些物品,同时对孩子该把哪些留在家里,哪些带去学校提出建议。他研究了从幼儿园到小学五年级的188名儿童,发现平均来说,孩子们所背的书包重量达到其体重的14%。三分之一的家长从来没有查看孩子的书包,96%的家长从未称过重量。Also helpful is selecting a well-designed backpack and adjusting it to sit properly on the child#39;s back. Although for the last 15 years I have used a rolling backpack to go to and from work, I know that teens and preteens today consider them unfashionable. Plus, they can be a trip hazard in hallways and difficult to carry up and down stairs.挑选设计上佳、可以调适到完全适合孩子背部的书包也有用。过去这15年来,我上下班一直使用的是一个拉杆包,不过我知道对于青春期和青春期前的孩子来说,这种包不那么时髦。此外,它可能会在过道里绊倒人,也很难提起来上下楼梯。Select a backpack that is no bigger than absolutely necessary — the more room in the pack, the more the child is likely to carry. The pack should have wide, padded, adjustable shoulder straps (narrow ones can cause nerve damage), a padded back, and compartments within so that the heaviest items can rest against the child#39;s back.选择一个不超出所需大小的书包——背包的空间越宽裕,孩子就越有可能往里面装更多东西。书包应该有宽大的肩带、有衬垫并且可调(窄窄的肩带可能会引起神经病变),书包背部应有软垫,里面也要有隔层,这样最重的物品可以贴在孩子的后背上。A waist strap would be ideal, but I doubt many children would use it. Adjust the shoulder straps so that the bottom of the pack when filled lands no lower than four inches below the waist.如果书包有腰带,这自然最好不过,但我怀疑有多少孩子愿意系腰带。调整好腰带,要确保在装好物品后,书包底端距离腰部不低于4英寸。Children should be cautioned never to carry the pack on one shoulder. Decades of carrying nearly everything heavy on my right shoulder has left me with significant scoliosis that I#39;m now trying to minimize with a yoga exercise.人们应提醒孩子,千万不要单肩背书包。几十年来,我一直用右肩背重重的包,导致出现了严重的脊椎侧弯,现在只好通过瑜伽练习尽量减轻症状。Digital Textbooks May Help Ease Backpack Burden数字教材可能有助于为书包减负The issue of overloaded backpacks could well become moot if President Obama and his education gurus have their way. The president wants every student to be using e-textbooks by 2017.如果奥巴马和他的教育高参们能够一路凯歌,过重的书包有可能将成为过去式。总统希望在2017年前,所有学生都能使用数字教材。In January, Education Secretary Arne Duncan and Julius Genachowski, the chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, recommended that states redirect budgets for printed books to the purchase of iPads, Kindles and the like and the software needed to foster modern education.1月份,教育部长阿恩·邓肯(Arne Duncan)和联邦通信委员会主度朱利斯·格纳科斯其(Julius Genachowski)建议政府将原用于纸质教材的预算划拨用于购买iPad、Kindle和其他类似电子产品,以及用于健全现代化教育的各类软件。Publishers and tablet makers will be urged to work together, and to lower costs, in order to supply the nation#39;s 50 million schoolchildren with electronic products for educational use.当局将敦促出版商和平板电脑厂商合作,同时降低产品费用,以向全美5000万在校学生提供电教产品。Although not everyone endorses the idea of moving from words printed on paper to those delivered electronically, there are certain undeniable advantages.尽管对于将注意力从白纸黑字转移到电子书上的想法,并非所有人都持,但它确实拥有一些不可辩驳的优势。For one, updates to e-textbooks are relatively easy to make, which means schools with limited finances would not have to replace outdated texts every five or six years. Learning would be more efficient and interactive, and materials supplied by teachers could be tailored to better meet individual student needs.其中一项是,更新电子书相对更易行,这就意味着经费有限的学校不必面对每隔五六年就要换过时教材的问题。学习将更有效,互动性更强,而且由老师挑选的教材将能更好地满足学生的个体化需求。In addressing a summit of industry and education officials in January, Mr. Genachowski said that billion a year is now being spent on textbooks that often are out-of-date. He predicted that in five years, ;we could be spending less as a society on textbooks and getting more for it.;在1月份一个面向产业界和教育官员的峰会上,格纳科斯基先生说,现在每年要在教材上花费70亿美元,而这些教材的内容往往已经落伍。他预言,在五年内,“作为一个社会,我们在教材上花的钱将更少,而所得的回报将更多。”He acknowledged the greater up-front costs of moving from paper to digital books and other materials but insisted that in the long run the switch would bring huge savings to the country#39;s educational system.他承认,将教材和其他教辅材料从纸质换成数字版本,先期投入会更高,但坚信长远来看,这种转变将为美国的教育体系节省巨大开。The first challenge will probably be finding the money with which schools could buy devices like the iPad, which runs about 0 at retail. In school districts that cannot afford such purchases, strategies will be needed to help low-income students get their own.首当其冲的挑战是寻找资金,用于学校购买电子设备,像iPad这样的设备零售价可达500美元左右。在一些买不起这类硬件的校区,还需要想办法帮助低收入家庭学生购买自己的器材。Then there is the issue of safekeeping (although if every child has one, the risk of theft is somewhat diminished).其次是安全保管问题(不过如果孩子们人手一台,失窃的危险将会减少些)。Costs aside, the educational advantages are perhaps limitless on devices that allow students to do research, check their work and get feedback from teachers without leaving their classrooms or homes. Digital books can also provide interactive diagrams, audio and that are not possible with traditional texts.花费姑且不论,这类器材带来的教育优势将可能是无穷无尽的,学生们无需离开教室或走出家门,就可以进行研究、检查功课并得到老师的反馈。电子教材同时还可以提供交互式图表、音频和视频,这是传统课本无法企及的。Apple has aly introduced three types of educational software intended to make the iPad a fixture in the classroom: an updated electronic bookstore called iBooks 2 that allows students to download more interactive textbooks; iBooks Author, a program for creating books; and iTunes U, an app that instructors can use to produce digital curricula and share course materials with students.苹果公司已经引入了三种教育软件,好让iPad适应课堂环境:一种是称为iBook 2的更新版在线书店,学生可在这里下载更多的互动教材;iBood Author,这是一个自成生成图书的应用程序;以及iTunes U,老师们可以使用这个应用来制作数字课程,并与学生们分享教学课件。Protections are needed to prevent students from cheating — say, by e-mailing test answers to their pals or submitting work that someone else has created. And much to the distress of one of my digitally oriented grandsons, whose penmanship is atrocious, students still must learn how to write with a pen or pencil.还需要提防学生作弊——比方说,用email将考试发给同学,或者提交别的同学已经完成的作业。此外,学生们仍然应当学习用钢笔或铅笔写字,这个要求肯定会让我的那个字写得特别烂、对数码产品十分痴迷的小孙子感到悲愤不已。A remaining impediment: Will e-textbooks permit students who once complained that ;the dog ate my homework; to find a new ream of excuses?还有一个障碍:有了电子教材,原先抱怨“我的作业被吃了”的同学们,还能想到什么新的借口吗?;The battery died, and I couldn#39;t charge it.; ;My iPad got wet in the rain/a puddle/the bathtub.;“没电了,我没法充电。”“我的iPad被雨/水坑/浴缸给泡湿了。”Or even: ;My little brother hammered it to death.;甚至是:“我的弟弟把它摔坏了。” /201410/331704。
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